Earth science is the study of the Earth.
It is an all-encompassing term that refers to fields like geology, oceanography, meteorology, and atmospheric sciences. Earth science also includes the natural sciences that involve the Earth, which is called geosciences. Geologists study rocks and minerals in order to learn how they formed and what their origins are.
Environmental geology is an interdisciplinary branch of earth sciences that studies the interactions between the natural environment and geological processes. Environmental geologists study both natural environmental changes and human-induced environmental changes. It is a field that seeks to understand the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of the earth’s surface--and more broadly, to understand how humans are changing the Earth's environment.
Meteorologists collect, analyze, and interpret atmospheric data of all types to provide forecasts for short-term weather events (such as next day, hour, or minute), medium-term events (such as next few days), and long-term climate scenarios.
A meteorologist's development can include experience in general weather forecasting (particularly with emphasis on short-term forecasts), tropical meteorology, air quality forecasting, agricultural meteorology, and radar meteorology.
Geohazards are natural phenomena that result in natural disasters. Natural hazards can be caused by a wide range of factors such as climate, earthquakes, volcanoes, and more.
These events can severely affect the environment and human society. They can also be very costly with property damages and loss of life.
Geo physicists are experts in the earth's physical features, with a focus on geology, meteorology, oceanography, and seismology. A geo physicist studies the dynamic processes that have shaped Earth's surface features.
Geo Physics is a highly technical field that combines geology, meteorology, oceanography, and seismology with mathematics and computer modeling.
Mineralogy is a branch of geology that deals with the description, identification, and classification of minerals and mineral products and inclusions in rocks. The study of minerals has been going on for thousands of years. The ancient Greeks were among the first to experiment with classifying minerals and they developed a few important terms for them such as “agate” and “jasper” which are still used today.
This field is used extensively in society because there are many different types of products made from different types of minerals such as glass, ceramics, paint pigments, plastics, toothpaste, etc.
Petroleum Geology is the study of the physical and chemical properties of rocks, sediments, and hydrocarbons. The petroleum geologist studies the nature, origin, and occurrence of oil, gas, and coal deposits. A petroleum geologist may also be involved in exploration for new deposits and may provide advice on how to extract oil and gas from known fields.
Petroleum Geology is a subset of Earth Science that is studied by Geologists. It is considered a "Hard" science because it requires an in-depth understanding of mathematics, physics, and chemistry in addition to geological knowledge.
One such hard skill required by petroleum geologists is Stratigraphy which they use to determine the position in space where certain types of rock units are located with respect to one another.
Geochemistry is the study of chemical and physical changes in the Earth and its atmosphere, oceans, and water supply.
It is an interdisciplinary science combining chemistry, geology, physics, biology, and geography. It deals with the composition of the Earth's crust and atmosphere as well as the processes that affect them. Geochemists typically study natural processes that change earth materials with time or that modify earth materials from human activity.
Geomorphology is the study of the Earth's solid features. Geomorphology is an area of academic research that involves the study of Earth's terrestrial surfaces. The Earth's surface includes all features on solid ground, such as mountains, valleys, cliffs, and canyons. It also includes natural elements such as rivers and lakes. In geomorphology studies, scientists study these features in detail to understand how they have been created or changed over time.
In this section, we will be learning about geomorphology from different perspectives - from a scientific perspective to a commercial perspective. We will learn about what geomorphology is and how it can be used in different fields for purposes such as predicting earthquakes and even making maps to sell real estate properties
Paleontology is the study of fossilized animals and plants. It’s also the process of unearthing fossils, which are found buried below the earth or at the bottom of oceans. Findings in paleontology have helped us understand the evolution of life on Earth.
Climatology is a branch of geosciences that deals with the study of climate and weather patterns. It's a complex study that requires an understanding of math, physics, and chemistry.
A climatologist studies past and present climates to predict future trends, such as weather patterns and global warming.
It is a scientific fact that the Earth's climate is changing. This change is primarily caused by an increase in the average global temperature. The consequences of this change are far-reaching and will affect all life on the planet.
The main cause of global warming can be attributed to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). GHGs are gases that act like a blanket around the earth, trapping heat near the surface and rising global temperatures. A few common GHGs include water vapor, CO2, nitrous oxide, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
It's not just human activity that causes GHG emissions; natural processes
Climate Change is a change in the climate that lasts for decades or longer. The Earth's climate is always changing, but global warming and human activities have caused the average temperature to rise significantly, with serious environmental and social consequences.
Scientists believe that burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which causes global warming. In addition to the rise in temperature, changes in precipitation patterns are also expected to occur as a result of Global Warming, resulting in significant regional environmental impacts.
Geoinformatics System (GIS) is a system to store, analyze, manage and present geographic data. A geo-informatics system (GIS) is a system to store, analyze, manage and present geographic data.
Introduction: Geoinformatics System (GIS) is a system that stores, analyzes, manages, and presents geographic data. It can be used in many fields such as architecture or urban planning where the spatial dimension of the problem is central.
Physical Geology is the study of the physical processes that shape the Earth. It includes various materials science, geochemistry, geophysics, and meteorology.
The composition of the Earth's atmosphere is changing over time. The atmosphere is not simply the air that we breathe, but it also contains some chemicals that are related to how our planet works. This section discusses the different types of atmospheric chemistry, its cause, and some of its effects.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of natural science which deals with atmospheric dynamics and the chemical processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric dynamics is broadly defined as "the study of atmospheric phenomena involving motions in the atmosphere". It incorporates meteorology, climatology, photochemistry, radiative transfer, gas exchange between organisms and the atmosphere, and other subjects.
Atmospheric chemistry has been studied for centuries because it encompasses many fields outside of natural sciences including engineering fields such as mechanical engineering or aerospace engineering which
Geography is the study of the physical environment, human interaction with the environment, and how humans use environmental resources. Geography is a complex field that has traditionally been taught in classrooms. However, with advances in technology, it may be possible to move the classroom into the home.
- The resources are becoming digitally available
- These resources can be accessed at all times
- The learner can progress at their own pace without being slowed down by other students who are progressing more quickly or slowly
Air is a mixture of gases that surrounds the earth. This section will briefly discuss the composition of air, the properties of this mixture, and what are some sources of atmospheric gases. This section will also look at how atmospheric physics affects weather, climate, and other aspects of our lives.
The ocean contains a wealth of resources and mysteries yet to be discovered. The deep-sea is the largest habitat on the planet, making up almost 70% of Earth's surface. A study in Nature said that there are at least 10 million species living in the world’s oceans, but this is probably a very small number. In fact, about 95% of life on Earth lives in the seas!
Oceanographers study the properties of water in oceans and seas. They also research how water moves through oceans or seas, what makes waves break on beaches, why currents move in one direction instead of another, and so on.
A scientific study of volcanoes and the processes that cause them. Volcanologists study how Earth's interior generates volcanic eruptions and the effects such eruptions have on people and their environments. They also study how people can best prepare for, avoid, mitigate, or adapt to volcanic hazards.
Remote sensing is the process of gathering information about an object, area, or phenomenon without being in direct contact with the object itself. This is done through the use of electromagnetic radiation, usually in the infrared wavelength region. Remote sensing has many uses including military surveillance, environmental monitoring, and harvesting data for map-making.
GIS applications are used in a variety of fields, such as environmental management, urban planning, and disaster mitigation.
A GIS application is software that uses geographical information system (GIS) to analyze and map data that pertains to geography, earth science, or human space. This application has become very popular because it’s easy to use and it promotes up-to-date technology in the workplace. It also helps maintain safe working environments with accurate information about potential hazards when managing natural resources.
The team at Geo Decisions is committed to making the world a safer place through GIS applications such as ArcMap (environmental management), City Engine (urban planning), and ArcGIS Prepare (disaster mitigation).
Mineral processing is the technique of extracting useful minerals from mineral ores.
Aerodynamic processes can be used to concentrate rock fragments or ores before they are processed. A common example of an aerodynamic process is the use of cyclones to separate particles by weight.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white pigment with poor covering power, which has traditionally been made by reacting titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with water (HO). The chemical equation for this reaction is: TiCl4 + HO → TiO2 + 4 HCl
Most titanium dioxide producers are now extracting titanium tetrachlorides from rutile ore rather than harvesting it as a side product of ilmenite mining, saving energy and reducing the environmental pollution. The chemical equation
Waste management is a process to manage all the wastes that are generated from a community, industry, or construction site. The goal of waste management is to reduce the environmental and health risks associated with waste production and disposal.
This includes reducing the need for waste production by reusing resources, reducing the amount of toxic substances in household products, and redesigning products so that they don't produce as much waste.
Recycling is an act of recovering materials that would otherwise be thrown away and using them again. It is an important part of reducing the environmental pollution. The principle behind recycling is relatively simple, however, the process of doing it can get complicated.
Recycling reduces the amount of waste in landfills, preserving natural resources and limiting air pollution, water pollution, and soil contamination from leachate. When a material is recycled rather than burned or buried, for every 100 pounds that are disposed of only 8 pounds end up in a landfill.
Biogeochemistry is a branch of chemical geology that deals with the study of the interaction between living organisms and the earth's surface.
This field is also sometimes called geobiology or biogeochemistry. These terms reflect a broader view of the subject, including a range of physical and biological processes, whereas biogeochemistry tends to focus on chemical reactions involving carbon and nutrients cycling through the earth's systems. Biogeochemical processes are an important part of both global nutrient cycles and global cycles for elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, and oxygen.
Soil is the thin layer of soil and other material covering the solid surface of the Earth (or another planet). It is an important part of the life support system. The soil is composed of mineral particles, organic matter, air and water. All living organisms are in some way dependent on it to sustain life.
There are three main components in soil formation. Parent material, climate and organisms are all necessary for different reasons in order for new soil to form. Organisms create organic matter which provides food for other creatures that live in this environment. They also help break down minerals into smaller pieces that can be used by plants
The study of the interactions between geology, microbiology, and biology is called geomicrobiology. Geomicrobiologists are interested in the interactions between microorganisms and geologic materials.
One of the most famous examples of this was when a team of geomicrobiologists found that bacteria that thrive in hot springs can change their cell membranes to flow uphill. This discovery was made possible by the use of scanning electron microscopy, which is one of the techniques used by geomicrobiologists to observe organisms.
The principle of sustainability has been around for many years, but it is only in recent decades that it has come into prominence. Rather than focusing on consumption, sustainability talks about consumption - how much we use and the effect our consumption habits have on the environment.
It encourages us to shift our mindset to one of resource conservation and efficiency, considering not just how much we consume but also the sources from which our consumption comes.
Ecosystem Services are the benefits that people derive from ecosystems. Human beings can use ecosystems for many things including food, clothing, water, fuel, shelter and medicines.
Ecosystem Services are classified into 6 categories based on their potential to provide economic benefit to human society: provisioning services, regulating services, supporting services, cultural services, regulating services and supporting services.
Gas reservoirs are porous and permeable rocks or sedimentary layers that contain natural gas. They form from the accumulation of hydrocarbons from ancient organic-rich material such as decayed plants and animals. Reservoirs are typically located tens to hundreds of meters below the surface.
Reservoirs can be classified into two categories: conventional and unconventional reservoirs. These reservoirs may also be categorized by their depth, gas composition, or geologic formation. Reserves of oil and natural gas are found in both conventional and unconventional reservoirs, but the extraction techniques used for each type differ greatly. In general, the deeper a reservoir is located below the surface, the more difficult to extract its contents as it becomes more expensive to drill down deep enough to reach those depths.
Environmental toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms, with a particular focus on how they accumulate and interact within biological systems.
Environmental Toxicology is a study that examines how environmentally hazardous chemicals can adversely affect living organisms in a variety of ways. This includes how these chemicals accumulate in biological systems, which is an important factor when considering their effects on human health.
Oil spills are a common occurrence in the world. They can happen for a variety of reasons, such as natural disasters and accidents. Oil spills can cause serious environmental damage, but they're also hazardous to humans and animals because they contain carcinogens.
In this section, we'll be discussing the history of oil tanker accidents and their environmental implications.
Industrial pollution comes when products are manufactured with little or no consideration for the environment. Industrial pollution is often the result of manufacturing when products are made with little or no consideration for the environment. Some industries that contribute to this pollution are coal, cement, refining, ore mining, and sewage treatment plants.
Industrial Pollution is not always recognized as a problem because it is so common in our society. This pollution can be eliminated by taking some preventative steps before it becomes an issue through the use of alternative fuels, new technologies, and best practices.
Environmental Pollution Control is the act of controlling the release of pollutants into the environment. Pollution control methods are also known as green engineering practices.
Some examples of environmental pollution control are air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, radioactive waste disposal, greenhouse gas emissions, and thermal radiation from power plants.
Environmental law regulates the use of natural resources on Earth. This includes terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments. It also includes human interaction with the environment, including air quality, water quality, and waste.
This section will be divided into subsections to explain how environmental law works, who uses it, and what it looks like in today's society. This section will discuss environmental law topics such as what it is, how it works, who uses it, and its impact on society.
Geo archaeology is archaeology that deals with the study of artifacts, landforms, and other physical evidence of human activity at the Earth's surface.
Geoarchaeologists employ a variety of excavation strategies to recover artifacts that are buried at the surface. They look for evidence of past climates, cultures, and economies in order to understand how these factors shaped societies in particular regions.
Mining is the extraction of valuable materials, like minerals or oil, from the earth. Mining engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with extracting these raw materials in an environmentally sustainable way.
Mining engineers need to know how to identify and extract minerals in a manner that does not disrupt the environment. They also need to know how to plan for processing before beginning mining operations. Successful mining engineers are often experts in geology, mineralogy, computer science, environmental sciences, mathematics, chemistry, and physics.
Energetics is the study of energy and may refer to Thermodynamics Bioenergetics Energy flow. Energetics and Process Technique is a psychotherapeutic technique that was developed by American psychiatrist, Arthur Janov in the 1970s.
It is also known as Primal therapy, the Primal scream, and primal therapy. It creates a nurturing environment to cultivate awareness of negative feelings from childhood. The goal of this therapy is to help people explore their past trauma or pain in order to release them from it.
Pipeline engineering is a field of oil and gas engineering that involves surveying, designing, constructing and maintaining pipelines.
Occupational safety is the practice of protecting workers from potential harm. Workers are most likely to be injured or ill because of their occupation.
There are many causes for such injuries such as:
- Lack of knowledge and skills
- Lack of awareness about hazards
- Poor control over equipment and machinery
- Poor work organization and management
- Lack of proper training for people working in hazardous environments
- Lack of safety measures and equipment
Health and environmental protection is the branch of public health. It encompasses a wide range of hazardous materials and activities, including chemical production, industrial manufacturing, nuclear power generation, mining, and more.
Health and environmental protection refer to a wide range of hazardous materials and activities that threaten public health. These hazards include chemical production, industrial manufacturing, nuclear power generation, mining (e.g., lead), and many more. This field encompasses the health-related goals of preventing disease or injury; managing risk; lessening or eliminating toxic substances; preserving natural resources; improving the quality of life; promoting social equity; preventing disruption to man-made systems (e.g., buildings); preserving animal welfare (e.g., through regulation); protecting food supplies.
Environmental management is an important topic for many countries. It is the responsibility of the government to make sure that ecological balance in the country is maintained and pollution levels are not high. One of the ways governments go about this is by implementing environmental laws and regulations to control pollution levels.
The government also needs to take steps towards conservation, sustainable development, recycling, and protection of natural resources like forests, water bodies, wildlife, etc. Organizations can play a vital role in this process too. For example, they can come up with innovative ideas to reduce their carbon footprint or implement sustainability practices in their work environment.
Atmospheric science is a branch of atmospheric sciences that studies the Earth's atmosphere. It's a physical science that studies the composition and physical properties of different layers in the atmosphere, as well as how they interact with each other.
In this section, we will learn about the different types of atmospheric scientists and their work.